Nose Plastic Surgery

The nose, the most prominent feature of the face, is subject to developmental and acquired deformities. Most of the surgery of the external nose is done for cosmetic reasons because the individual is unhappy and conscious of a hump or other deviation from the normal. Patients of this type are mentally disturbed, focusing their attention […]

Cosmetic Facial Surgery

Facial injuries and wounds of the face cause lacerations and fractures with or without loss of soft tissue and bone and with or without displacements resulting in malocclusion of the teeth. In few other injuries is the final outcome so directly dependent on early proper care. The bony and cartilaginous framework of the face provides […]

Cosmetic Hand Surgery

In the mid-20th century, probably no field of reconstructive surgery has attracted more attention and produced more ingenious methods and promising results than the surgery of the hand, which commands the interest of a sizable group of hand surgeons. The economic implications of an injured hand in a society demanding high skills are self-evident. Among […]

Cosmetic Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is the surgical specialty that deals with the reconstruction and repair of certain congenital deformities, burns, injuries, surgical defects, and wounds resulting from serious accidents or war. The primary aim of the plastic surgeon is the restoration of function, but restoration of the appearance or cosmetic effect may be just as important. One […]

Cleft Lip Surgery

Cleft lip and cleft palate are the commonest congenital deformities with which the plastic surgeon is concerned. It is estimated that such deformities occur once in every 770 live births. While the cause is uncertain, evidence suggests that cleft of the lip, with or without cleft of the palate, is strongly influenced by heredity. On […]


Parturition, also known as childbirth, is the act of giving birth to a baby. Parturition usually occurs about 280 days after a baby has been conceived. During the last three months of pregnancy the baby turns inside the uterus, or womb, so that its head lies against the cervix, or opening of the uterus. When […]


Periodontics, as the name implies, deals with those parts of the mouth that lie around the teeth. It is important that the gums and bone are kept healthy to avoid periodontal disease. Dental decay is not the only cause of tooth loss. Periodontal disease causes enormous tooth loss, especially in later years. It is an […]


Orthodontics deals with the correction of teeth that are wrongly positioned. Ideally, teeth and jaws should match each other. As the face grows and the deciduous teeth are lost, the permanent teeth that replace them should slot neatly into place with no gaps and no crossing, forming a symmetrical elliptical arch like a string of […]


Prosthodontics is the art of making artificial substitutes for teeth. There are two types: removable prostheses (false teeth), and fixed prostheses which are permanently cemented onto existing teeth or metal implants and cannot be removed. Removable prostheses are either full dentures used when all teeth have been lost, or partial dentures which are attached by […]